Risk Factors of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Literature Review

Literatur Review: Faktor Risiko Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)


  • I Made Sudarma Adiputra STIKES Wira Medika Bali
  • G. N. Indraguna Pinatih Universitas Udayana
  • Ni Wayan Trisnadewi STIKes Wira Medika Bali
  • Ni Putu Wiwik Oktviani STIKes Wira Medika Bali




literatur review, Risk Factor, ADHD


Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a growth and development disorder in children characterized by impaired excessive activity and low attention of preschool-aged children. Children who suffer from ADHD will be very difficult to manage and tend to experience problems both at home or at school. This study literature aimed to obtain risk faktors for the incidence of ADHD. Methods and Results: The method used is literature review, search database using several sources from the database: EBSCO HOST, Proquest, PubMed, Scient Direct and Springer Link 2010-2020 publications, the keywords “Risk Faktors”,”adhd or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder” Boolean operator “AND”. There are total of 309 articles found in accordance with these keywords. The article was evaluated according to desirable criteria: full text, the language used and the suitability of the design, a total of 18 articles that are used for this review. Discussion: Risk faktors that increase the incidence of ADHD: Exposure to cigarette smoke, smoking and consuming alcohol during pregnancy, obese pregnant women, birth history with low birth weight (LBW) and premature birth, APGAR low score at birth, genetic and environmental conditions, socioeconomic parents, age of parents and birth history of sectio caesaria (SC).


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Author Biography

G. N. Indraguna Pinatih, Universitas Udayana

Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana


Abdel Hamed, N. A., Hammad, E. E. D. M., Salama, R. H., Yassa, H. A., & Awaga, M. M. (2019). Secondhand smoke as a risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Inhalation Toxicology, 31(11–12), 420–427. https://doi.org/10.1080/08958378.2019.1705440

Adiputra, I. M. S., Sutarga, I. M., & Pinatih, G. N. I. (2015). Faktor Risiko Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) pada Anak di Denpasar. Public Health and Preventive Medicine Archive, 3(1), 35. https://doi.org/10.15562/phpma.v3i1.84

Adiputra, I. M. S., Trisnadewi, N. W., & Parlin, G. A. K. U. (2018). GAMBARAN TINGKAT PENGETAHUAN KELUARGA TENTANG ADHD DI PAUD KECAMATAN DENPASAR UTARA. Bali Medika Jurnal, I. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.36376/bmj.v5i1.15

Amiri, S., Malek, A., Sadegfard, M., & Abdi, S. (2012). Pregnancy-Related Maternal Risk Factors of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Case-Control Study. ISRN Pediatrics, 2012, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/458064

Andersen, C. H., Thomsen, P. H., Nohr, E. A., & Lemcke, S. (2018). Maternal body mass index before pregnancy as a risk factor for ADHD and autism in children. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27(2), 139–148. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-017-1027-6

Beaver, K. M., Nedelec, J. L., Rowland, M. W., & Schwartz, J. A. (2012). Genetic risks and ADHD symptomatology: Exploring the effects of parental antisocial behaviors in an adoption-based study. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 43(2), 293–305. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-011-0263-0

Biederman, J., Martelon, M. K., Woodworth, K. Y., Spencer, T. J., & Faraone, S. V. (2017). Is Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy a Risk Factor for Cigarette Smoking in Offspring? A Longitudinal Controlled Study of ADHD Children Grown Up. Journal of Attention Disorders, 21(12), 975–985. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054714557357

Chen, M. H., Su, T. P., Chen, Y. S., Hsu, J. W., Huang, K. L., Chang, W. H., … Bai, Y. M. (2014). Is atopy in early childhood a risk factor for ADHD and ASD? A longitudinal study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 77(4), 316–321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2014.06.006

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Hanć, T., Szwed, A., Słopień, A., Wolańczyk, T., Dmitrzak-Węglarz, M., & Ratajczak, J. (2018). Perinatal Risk Factors and ADHD in Children and Adolescents: A Hierarchical Structure of Disorder Predictors. Journal of Attention Disorders, 22(9), 855–863. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054716643389

Hegelund, E. R., Flensborg-Madsen, T., Vassard, D., Niclasen, J., & Mortensen, E. L. (2019). Parental socioeconomic position and risk of ADHD in offspring: a cohort study of 9648 individuals in Denmark 1976–2013. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28(5), 685–693. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-018-1235-8

Istiklaili, F., Suwandono, A., Suhartono, S., Widyorini, E., & Saputro, D. (2019). Risk factors affecting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among early childhood in the agricultural area in Indonesia. Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development, 10(1), 417–421. https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-5506.2019.00083.4

Lehti, V., Chudal, R., Suominen, A., Gissler, M., & Sourander, A. (2016). Association between immigrant background and ADHD: a nationwide population-based case–control study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 57(8), 967–975. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12570

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Noordermeer, S. D. S., Luman, M., Weeda, W. D., Buitelaar, J. K., Richards, J. S., Hartman, C. A., … Oosterlaan, J. (2017). Risk factors for comorbid oppositional defiant disorder in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(10), 1155–1164. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-017-0972-4

Perera, F. P., Wheelock, K., Wang, Y., Tang, D., Margolis, A. E., Badia, G., … Herbstman, J. B. (2018). Combined effects of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and material hardship on child ADHD behavior problems. Environmental Research, 160(September), 506–513. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.09.002

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Schwenke, E., Fasching, P. A., Faschingbauer, F., Pretscher, J., Kehl, S., Peretz, R., … Schneider, M. (2018). Predicting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using pregnancy and birth characteristics. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 298(5), 889–895. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00404-018-4888-0

Septier, M., Peyre, H., Amsellem, F., Beggiato, A., Maruani, A., Poumeyreau, M., … Delorme, R. (2019). Increased risk of ADHD in families with ASD. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28(2), 281–288. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-018-1206-0

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Wang, Y., Hu, D., Chen, W., Xue, H., & Du, Y. (2019). Prenatal Tobacco Exposure Modulated the Association of Genetic variants with Diagnosed ADHD and its symptom domain in children: A Community Based Case–Control Study. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40850-w



How to Cite

Adiputra, I. M. S., Pinatih, G. N. I. ., Trisnadewi, N. W. ., & Oktviani, N. P. W. . (2021). Risk Factors of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Literature Review: Literatur Review: Faktor Risiko Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) . Bali Medika Jurnal, 8(1), 35–44. https://doi.org/10.36376/bmj.v8i1.167

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